Section : Reading Comprehension Paket II
Waktu : 55 Menit
Jumlah Soal : 50
Petunjuk Latihan :
- Setiap Bahan Bacaan akan diikuti sejumlah soal.
- Silahkan mulai star quiz untuk setiap bahan bacaan jika anda rasa sudah siap. Setelah itu soal akan muncul dengan 4 pilihan jawaban.
- Pilih jawaban yang menurut anda paling benar, setelah memilih jawaban maka soal otomatis berpindah ke soal berikutnya.
Catatan : (1) Aplikasi ini masih dalam tahap pengembangan sehingga belum memiliki timer waktu pengerjaan jadi silahkan taati aturan tersebut karena kesadaran diri anda dan (2) aplikasi ini tidak memiliki fitur menjawab ulang soal yang sudah diselesaikan jadi silahkan tentukan dengan seksama jawaban yang anda akan pilih.
Questions 1 – 10
The tern “art deco” has come to encompass three distinct but related design trends of the 1920’s and 1930’s. The first was what is frequently referred to as “zigzag moderne” –the exotically ornamental style of such skyscrapers as the Chrysler Building in New York City and related structures such as the Paramount Theater in Oakland, California The word “zigzag” alludes to the geometric and stylized ornamentation of zigzags, angular patterns, abstracted plant and animal motifs, sunbursts, astrological imagery, formalized fountains, and related themes that were applied in mosaic relief. and mural form to the exterior and interior of the buildings. Many of these buildings were shaped in the ziggurat form, a design resembling an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower that recedes in progressively smaller stages to the summit, creating a staircase-like effect. The second manifestation of art deco was the 1930’s streamlined moderne” style—a Futuristic-looking aerodynamic style of rounded corners and horizontal bands known as “speed stripes.” In architecture, these elements were frequently accompanied by round windows, extensive use of glass block, and flat rooftops.
The third style, referred to as cither “ international stripped classicism,” or simply “classical moderne,” also came to the forefront during the Depression, a period of severe economic difficult in the 1930’s. This was amore conservative style, blending a simplified modernistic style with a more austere form of geometric and stylized relief sculpture and other ornament, including interior murals. May buildings in this style were erected nationwide through government programs during the Depression . Although art deco in its many forms was largely perceived as thoroughly modern, it was strongly influenced by the decorative arts movements that immediately preceded it. For example, like “art nouveau” (1890-1910), art deco also used plant motifs, but regularized the forms into abstracted repetitive patterns rather than presenting them as flowing, asymmetrical foliage, Like the Viennese craftspeople of the Wiener Werkstatte, art deco designers worked with exotic materials, geometricized shapes, and colorfully ornate patterns. Furthermore, like the artisans of the Arts and Crafts Movement in England and the United States, art deep practitioners considered it their mission to transform the domestic environment through well-designed furniture and household accessories.
Reading II : Soal 1 – 10
Questions 11 – 20
Awarded the Nobel prize for physics in 1918, German physics Max Planck is best remembered as the originator of the quantum theory. His work helped user in a new era in theoretical physics and revolutionized the scientific community’s understanding of atomic and sub-atomic processes.
Planck introduced an idea that led to the quantum theory, which became the foundation of twentieth century physics. In December 1900, Planck worked out an equation that described the distribution of radiation accurately over the range of low to high frequencies. He had developed a theory which depended on a model of matter that seemed very strange at the time. The model required the emission of electromagnetic radiation in small chunks or particles. These particles were later called quantums. The energy associated with each quatum is measured by multiplying the frequency of the radiation, v, by a universal constant, h. Thus, energy, or E, equals hv. The constant, h, is known as Planck’s constant. It is now recognized as one of the fundamental constant of the world.
Planck announced his finding in 1900, but it was years before the full consequences of his revolutionary quantum theory were recognized. Throughout his life, Planck made significant contributions to optics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, physical chemistry, and other fields. In 1930, He was elected president of the Kaiser Wilhelm society, which was renamed the Max II. Though deeply opposed to the fascist regime of Adolf Hitler, Planck remained in Germany throughout the war. He died in Gottingen on October 4, 1947.
Reading II : 11- 20
Questions 21 – 31
There are two basic types of glaciers, those that ﬂow outward in all directions with little regard for any underlying terrain and those that are conﬁned by terrain to a particular path.
The first category of glaciers includes those massive blankets that cover whole continents, appropriately called ice sheets. There must be over 50,000 square kilometers of land covered with ice for the glacier to qualify as an ice sheet. When portions of an ice sheet spread out over the ocean, they form ice shelves.
About 20,000 years ago the Cordilleran Ice Sheet covered nearly all the mountains in southern Alaska, western Canada, and the western United States. It was about 3 kilometers deep at its thickest point in northern Alberta. Now there are only two sheets left on Earth, those covering Greenland and Antarctica.
Any domelike body of ice that also ﬂows out in all directions but covers less than 50,000 square kilometers is called an ice cap. Although ice caps are rare nowadays, there are a number in northeastern Canada, on Baﬃn Island, and on the Queen Elizabeth Islands.
The second category of glaciers includes those of a variety of shapes and sizes generally called mountain or alpine glaciers. Mountain glaciers are typically identified by the landform that controls their ﬂow. One form of mountain glacier that resembles an ice cap in that it ﬂows outward in several directions is called an ice ﬁeld. The difference between an ice ﬁeld and an ice cap is subtle. Essentially, the ﬂow of an ice ﬁeld is somewhat controlled by surrounding terrain and thus does not have the domelike shape of a cap. There are several ice ﬁelds in the Wrangell. St. Elias, and Chugach mountains of Alaska and northern British Columbia.
Less spectacular than large ice fields are the most common types of mountain glaciers: the cirque and valley glaciers. Cirque glaciers are found in depressions in the surface of the land and have a characteristic circular shape. The ice of valley glaciers, bound by terrain, ﬂows down valleys, curves around their corners, and falls over cliffs.
Reading II : 21 – 31
Questions 32 – 40
Tools and hand bones excavated from the Swartkrans cave complex in South Africa suggest that a close relative of early humans known as Australopithecus robustus may have made and used primitive tools long before the species became extinct I million Line years ago. It may even have made and used primitive tools long before humanity’s direct ancestor, Homo habilis, or “handy man,” began doing so. Homo habilis and its successor, Homo erectus, coexisted with Australopithecus robustus on the plains of South Africa for more than a million years.
The Swartkrans cave in South Africa has been under excavation since the 1940’s. The earliest fossil-containing layers of sedimentary rock in the cave date from about 1.9 million years ago and contain extensive remains of animals, primitive tools, and two or more species of apelike hominids. The key recent discovery involved bones from the hand of Australopithecus robustus, the ﬁrst time such bones have been found.
The most important feature of the Australopithecus robustus hand was the pollical distal thumb tip, the last bone in the thumb. The bone had an attachment point for a “uniquely human” muscle, the ﬂexor pollicis longus, that had previously been found only in more recent ancestors. That muscle gave Australopithecus robustutJ an opposable thumb, a feature that would allow them to grip objects, including tools. The researchers also found primitive bone and stone implements, especially digging tools, in the same layers of sediments.
Australopithecus robustus were more heavily built- more “robust” in anthropological terms-than their successors. They had broad faces, heavy jaws, and massive crushing and grinding teeth that were used for eating hard fruits, seeds, and ﬁbrous underground plant parts. They walked upright, which would have allowed them to carry and use tools. Most experts had previously believed that Homo habilis were able to supplant Australopithecus robustus because the former’s ability to use tools gave them an innate superiority. The discovery that Australopithecus robustus also used tools means that researchers will have to seek other explanations for their extinction. Perhaps their reliance on naturally occurring plants led to their downfall as the climate became drier and cooler, or perhaps Homo habilis, with their bigger brains, were simply able to make more sophisticated tools.
Reading II : 32 – 40